© 2009 Steve Campsall
kwikguide - writing to persuade
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Writing to persuade is a popular and important choice of exam question. By carefully following the advice below you should be able to improve your grade.
PERSUASION OR ARGUMENT?
Persuasion and argument are very similar and use many of the same techniques however, they do each have their own style and approach. Persuasion has the single-minded goal of changing another person's thought or behaviour, whereas argument offers a well-reasoned point of view that recognises and tries to counter other reasonable and valid views. Compared to argument, persuasion tends to be more one-sided and personal and often succeeds by trying to gain an emotional response argument, however, generally succeeds through reason alone.
1. Effective Preparation
When you are given an essay question on writing to persuade, you are in a completely artificial situation. Your personal beliefs need to be put to one side. The examiner is only interested in your persuasive skills, not your personal opinions. You need to become an ' actor' and transform yourself into the person in the essay question.
2. Effective Writing
3. Effective checking
In this part of the exam, you gain marks for writing in an accurate, clear and fluent way. Each year the examiner's report mentions that many students failed to achieve a higher grade because they failed to check and correct their work. Always give yourself time to check your writing thoroughly before handing in the exam paper.
Read each sentence after you have written it
Write using a variety of sentence types and styles but remember especially that shorter sentences are often more interesting because they are crisper and clearer. An occasional ultra-short sentence can add real impact to writing.
Never fail to re-read your sentences after writing them to check that they are complete in their sense, accurate in their grammar and spelling and follow on logically and smoothly from the last.
Check every paragraph.
A paragraph is a written discussion that covers a single topic - one topic among the many that are needed to cover the subject matter of the whole piece of writing. One of the sentences in the paragraph, and quite often the first one, is called the ' topic sentence' . This is the sentence that introduces, or tells ' in a nut shell' , what the paragraph is going to be about. The remaining sentences do no more than expand and explore the ideas raised by the topic sentence in more depth. No points that are unrelated to the main topic should be covered in the same paragraph.
Each paragraph should flow smoothly from its predecessor. This is achieved by the use of a subtle ' hook sentence' at the end of the paragraph this is a sentence that ' hooks' into the new topic of the next paragraph.
To correct a missed paragraph simply put this mark where you want in to be: // then, in your margin write: // = new paragraph. The examiner will not mark you down for this so long as you have not forgotten all of your paragraphs.
Examine each comma
Over, or misuse, of commas is a common and important error that can lose many marks. Many of you will occasionally use a comma instead of a full stop to end some of your sentences. You are failing to recognise where the end of the sentence should have been. Too much of this leads to a dreary and difficult-to-read style because it destroys the clarity and crispness that is a necessary part of all good writing.
A sentence is a group of words that is about one main idea or ' thought' . It should seem ' complete' to its reader. Sentences that drift into several ideas, or which seem incomplete, are less clear and interesting to read. Ending a sentence with a comma (or even nothing but a space) instead of a full stop will allow it to ' run on' or drift in this way. Try to use commas only to mark off parts of a sentence so that the sentence reads more smoothly or makes clearer sense.
Look at every apostrophe.
Look at the words you have used that end in ' s' . Are they plurals? If so the chances are they do not need an apostrophe. Apostrophes are used to show when a letter has been missed out (as in: shouldn't) and when two nouns belong to each other (as in: the school's entrance). Also... make sure that when you write ' it's' you do mean ' it is' (as in it's cold) not ' belonging to it' (i.e. as in: its surface).